A blog about political philosophy, focusing on third party politics, and radical and anarchist topics. Common topics discussed include political theory, constitutional law and civil liberties, civil rights and interstate commerce, health care and insurance policy, labor law and unions, unemployment and wages, currency and monetary policy, taxation and budgets, trade and markets, international relations, U.S. politics and election statistics, the political spectrum, and alternatives to the state
The following is a description for the Facebook group "Millennial Political Hub."
Written by Joe Kopsick and Trevor Tidwell in May and August 2014.
page for a big-tent, multi-partisan coalition for a new American
republic and a new social contract.
Millennial Political Hub (formerly the United Freedom Alliance) is a
coalition that caters to the voice of the people.
know that the people of the world, of the United States, and
especially the Millennial generation (the generation born between
approximately 1982 and 2000) want to think and work together
peacefully to solve some of the biggest challenges facing the world
over the next several decades.
American Dream is in shambles. The Baby Boomer generation will not
only out-earn the Millennial generation; they will also live longer
than Millennials. Generational debt has resulted from our
government's financial mismanagement. Homelessness, hunger, poverty,
and economic disparity still plague the world, and in America the
authorities brutally crack down on the poor, and brutally crack down
on everyone else for unbelievably minor non-violent offenses.
Life-threatening but preventable chronic diseases are on the rise. By
2025, the North Atlantic will be almost completely devoid of marine
life, and by 2030, carbon dioxide emission trends will reach the
crucial turning point.
governmental institutions and processes – even our fundamental
notions of what justice and the rule of law are - are in disarray.
The stark divide between political camps which was evident during the
Culture Wars of the 1990s has given way to increasing factionalism
and sectionalism, which threaten to eventually tear apart not only
the two major parties but the fabric of society as a whole.
put, the world has a lot of problems, and each person or faction in
it has its own views about what justice is, and what standards people
ought to be held to.
why Millennial Political Hub invites you to join our group, chat with
administrators, discuss in our threads, meet fellow members, and vote
in our polls. Seek your own justice, wisdom, and freedom, through
peaceful discourse and polite discussion. We do this in order to
encourage free thought and speech, facilitate cooperation and
desire is to build a broad coalition that would support a platform
based on what we aim to create: a working model for a personalizable,
customizable form of government (or style, or institutional framework
for, governance) that can be all things to all people. A style of -
or institutional framework for – governance, that can hold people
to their own professed moral principles and behavioral standards, not
to the principles dictated by some elite claiming to represent them.
believe that the people of the Millennial Generation – and of the
Millennial Political Hub – are up to the challenge of improving
government and solving war, hunger, pollution, poverty, unemployment,
collapsing public infrastructure, education, disease, and so on.
Millennials are well-educated, globally aware, culturally and
ethnically diverse, and politically conscious, yet relatively
untainted by partisan politics.
Millennials are not content to become a silent, ignored, mistrusted
generation. The Baby Boomers seem certain that we are going to save
them, but they don't seem willing to accept any of our terms. Our
generation may volunteer in record numbers, but we don't always work
demand little more than the tools to do our jobs: our fair share of
opportunity, a peaceful and free society, a safe workplace, a truly
social safety net that extends beyond the scope of government welfare
programs, and a basic guaranteed standard of living to provide a
level playing field.
want more reasonable licensing requirements and more widely
accessible job training. We want it to be easier to volunteer and to
work, and we want those labors to be more effective and more
profitable. Likewise, we want our government to spend our money more
wisely and more efficiently.
Millennial Generation cannot take its place in history as a proud and
accomplished generation unless and until the political, societal, and
economic values systems of the Baby Boomers are no longer imposed on
us. We know that society cannot survive when groups and individuals
impose foreign values systems, customs, and traditions upon one
another, not without dire consequences.
Political Hub urges its members to read The Fourth Turning: What
the Cycles of History Tell Us About America's Next Rendezvous with
Destiny by William Strauss and Neil Howe. Strauss and Howe teach
us that generations and history shape and influence one another, and
postulate that generational societal change occurs in cycles.
Hub hopes to find ways for our generation to get along with the dying
members of the G.I. and Silent generations, and the Baby Boomers and
Gen-Xers. We also want to ensure that the next generation does not
fall victim to the same war, nationalism, and depression that
afflicted the Silent and Progressive generations.
we stand for:
Subsidiarity and localism: increase governmental efficiency and
efficacy through the decentralization and diffusion of
decision-making and enforcement power down to the lowest possible
level without compromising competence.
Household choice of legal community and location (for single-person
households and family households alike).
Self-determination of households and consensual legal communities
(whether or not the lands that such communities are contiguous and
Egalitarianism and isocracy
Civic republicanism; an emphasis on written law
That a social contract should be written, signed, sealed, delivered,
and acknowledged by all parties involved, just like any normal
contract conferring mutual obligation and surety.
That breaking a social contract, or changing its rules without
sufficient cause and/or notice, should merit ostracism, and
compulsory exile and self-dependence; rather than forced submission
or violent retribution (unless democide or mass mayhem is risked by
not initiating violence in the face of an imminent threat).
That consensus- and coalition- based democracy are preferable to
majoritarian democracy (even based on a majority of those who
participate) because majoritarianism is insufficiently supportive of
- and insufficiently deferential to - individual rights, cultural
differences, the self-determination of legal communities, competitive
provision of justice, and non-cooperative pacts and truces providing
Separation of powers in dispute resolution: eliminate corruption in
jury selection; promote full information of juries; reinstate
common-law grand juries; ensure that no dispute resolution or
arbitration agency has the authority to license any other (s), nor to
compel any person or agency to always and exclusively come to it for
dispute resolution; and ensure that police witnesses, prosecutors,
and judges (who all represent the state) and court-appointed public
defenders cannot collude to keep jurors and the accused ill-informed
of their rights.
learn more about the inspiration for this group - and about the
history of Western political philosophy - the original three authors
of the group recommend viewing the following 12-part video series, a
course that was filmed at Harvard that covers Locke, Nozick, Rawls,
Aristotle, and others:
Millennial Political Hub is a place for Millennials to gather,
discuss, brainstorm to createmutually
agreeable solutions across partisan and ideological lines, and form a
big-tent, multi-partisan coalition for a new republic and social
contract, that all may have justice and freedom for themselves,
rather than having values and ideals imposed on them.
invite you to join our group, chat with administrators and other
members, vote in polls, and participate in peaceful discourse and
polite discussion. We encourage free thought and speech, and want to
facilitate cooperation and brainstorming.
As Millennials, we
are not content to become a silent, ignored, lazy, and mistrusted
generation. Our Boomer parents and grandparents once seemed certain
that we were going to save them, and with the proper guidance and
negotiation, we will rise to the occasion. Gen-Xers have distrusted
us, but we will build bridges of mutual respect, appreciation, and
teamwork. We will end the conflict between generations, so we can
face our challenges together.
We believe that Millennials,
together with Xers and Boomers, are up to the challenge of improving
government, solving war, ending hunger, cleaning up pollution,
eradicating poverty, ending unemployment, renewing collapsing public
infrastructure, improving education, curing disease, and meeting all
the challenges we face with all brightness of hope that we can
overcome them. We are well-educated, globally aware, culturally and
ethnically diverse, and politically conscious, and reject partisan
We want our markets, corporations, and businesses to
have a conscience and be socially responsible, as well as productive
and profitable. We want education to be freely accessible and
affordable for all people. We want fully integrated lives, where our
jobs and work do not take us from our families or prevent us from
enjoying the fruits and rest of a productive society. We want strong,
healthy, and happy children, families, and marriages. We want our
homes, neighborhoods and communities to be safe, friendly, clean,
well connected, and open. We want our government to be efficient,
responsible, and responsive, and our taxes invested and dispensed
wisely. We want an end to debt-slavery and wage slavery and the
building of true wealth for the benefit of all people. We want peace
Written in February 2008 for a course on geography,
Edited in July 2014
Although one may not expect a city of only 5,000 residents located
on the North shore of Chicago to show much evidence of international
influence, the history of Highwood, Illinois has a rich multicultural
heritage that is reflected in its mix of foreign-born and
immigrant-descended residents and their restaurants, grocery stores,
and other businesses which have put Highwood's economic success level
on par with that of the mostly white and Jewish communities around
In 2000, the population of Highwood was 4,143. It is located in
southeastern Lake County, 28 miles north of downtown Chicago. The
City of Highwood is connected to all cities on the shore of Lake
Michigan from Kenosha, Wisconsin to Chicago by the Metra / Union
Pacific North Line. It is bordered by Lake Forest to the northwest,
Fort Sheridan to the northeast, and Highland Park to the south.
Highwood was founded in the 1880s by Swedish settlers. Phone service
in Highwood began in the 1930s, and cars became available in the
1940s, though they were difficult to afford during the war.
Today, 38.6% of Highwood residents are foreign-born and 38.2% are
Hispanics of any race. Italian immigration to the city began in the
early years of the 1900s decade, peaked during World War II,
decreased dramatically in the late 1940s, and rose again in the
1960s. Highwood has been importing pasta, olive oil, cookies, candy,
and panatone from Italy since before the 1930s. The city hosts the
annual Highwood Days in August, which began as an Italian cultural
celebration in the 1980s.
The economic blending between Highwood and the affluent,
predominantly Jewish neighborhood of Highland Park has become more
apparent since World War II through the 1960s, when Highwood
experienced a business renaissance as several dozen taverns were
replaces by better buildings occupied by restaurants. Since then,
Highwood has seen an increase in white residents and property values.
Over the last five to seven years, several antique stores and art
galleries have opened.
In the mid-1950s, Highwood's numerous Italian-owned landscaping
companies, of which today there are at least five, began hiring
Mexican immigrants. The influx of Mexican immigrants to Highwood has
spread to Highland Park and Lake Forest. There is also a significant
Mexican population in North Chicago, ten miles north of Highwood.
Most Highwood residents work within the city, although train service
to Kenosha and Chicago is readily available as it goes straight
through the center of the town, which is less than one square mile in
area. In the 1930s, many people living in Highwood worked as
housekeepers and gardeners for residents of Lake Forest, Highland
Park, and Lake Bluff. Today the most common occupations are
landscaping, carpentry, stone masonry, electrician work, food
service, plumbing, and family businesses such as auto body shops.
Today, downtown Highwood has many Mexican- and Italian-owned grocery
stores and restaurants. There are two Mexican-owned grocery stores,
called “mini-supers,” including one that cooks food to order.
There are currently three Italian-owned grocery stores - one of which
is a butcher shop that has been in business for 35 years – another
is a bakery, and two of them make food to order or to go.
There are three or four Mexican-owned restaurants, which mostly
employ Mexican cooks, busboys, and wait staff. There are at least
nine Italian-owned restaurants, some of which employ Mexican cooks
and busboys. The wait staff, hosts, and bartenders at restaurants and
bars in Highwood are mostly Italian or white.
Walgreen's store in Highwood offers specialty items that most other
Walgreen's would not have, such as Mexican candy, pastries made by
Mexico-based company Bimbo, and El Milagro tortilla chips. Walgreen's
was built after Highwood's main pharmacy and convenience store,
Laegler's Pharmacy, closed after about a hundred years of operation.
The owner, William Laegler, became a pharmacist at Walgreen's. In
Laegler's place is an upscale Italian-owned restaurant called
Gabe Viti, the owner of Miramar – and Froggy's, which serves
French cuisine – opened a Mexican restaurant called Pancho Viti,
but it was unsuccessful and closed after several years. There is also
a Chinese restaurant and a Greek restaurant called Yianni's Opa,
which closed last year after about ten years of operation.
North Shore Estates is a 200,000 square-foot, 252-unit apartment
property comprised of three four-story midrise apartment buildings
located on the northern edge of Highwood's business district. It
houses several hundred, perhaps a thousand residents. Since the early
1980s, the building has been known to be overcrowded and there are
numerous health and safety concerns. What to do about the building
has been a topic of concern in City Hall for the past few years. The
building may be sold, but citizens have voiced their concern for the
health of the residents as this would displace about 20% of
Highwood's work force.
Another apartment complex north of North Shore Estates along
Sheridan Road is the nearby Hotel Moraine, which has closed and is
planned to be torn down and replaced by a condominium with retail
space on the bottom floor, although logistical and population-density
issues slow its development.
Across Sheridan Road from northern Highwood is the south end of the
U.S. Army base Fort Sheridan. Fort Sheridan and Highwood belong to
North Shore School District 112, which today includes Oak Terrace
Elementary and Indian Trail School, which teach kindergarten through
fifth grade, and Elm Place Middle School, which teaches sixth through
eighth grade. Students attend high school in neighboring Highland
Park. St. James Catholic School, which teaches kindergarten through
eighth grade, has been open for at least 75 years. It has been
developed since its construction, adding new classrooms and
converting old classrooms into rental spaces for events.
After about a hundred years of operation, Oak Terrace School was
rebuilt as Oak Terrace Elementary in 1999 and 2000 and has since
become a dual language magnet school, owing to the increase in
Mexican immigration to Highwood. Fifty-two point one percent of
Highwood residents over 5 years old speak a language other than
English at home. For each grade, the school offers one English-only
class and one or several dual Spanish and English classes. As the
grades advance, Spanish and English use in the classroom is blended.
Kindergarten dual Spanish and English classes begin with Spanish
Recently, there has been an increase in the number of white students
enrolled at Oak Terrace Elementary, the dual-language elementary
school, as non-Spanish-speaking residents have become aware and have
realized the need for their children to be aware of the Spanish
language. Some residents believe that Oak Terrace's emphasis on dual
language skills causes the content to be covered less in-depth.
Sherwood School in Highland Park also offers dual language classes.
Residents are free to choose which of Highwood's elementary schools
their children attend.
In a study of Highwood, Illinois, one can find evidence of influence
from Mexico, China, and most of Western Europe including Italy,
France, and Sweden. It has been active in trade with Italy for at
least 75 years. Residents celebrate their Italian heritage on an
annual basis, and Hispanic heritage is reflected in one of its
educational institutions, each contributing to the prevalence of
multilingual people in the area. Highwood's status as a diverse
immigrant neighborhood has shaped its distinct identity among cities
on the North Shore for over one hundred years.
Written in April 2008 for a course on political theory,
Edited in July 2014
More's character Raphael Nonsenso says that nobles “have grown
dissatisfied with the income that their predecessors got out of their
estates. They're no longer content to lead lazy, comfortable lives,
which do no good to society – they must actively do it harm, by
enclosing all the land they can for pasture, and leaving none for
to More, t]he sheep market is “almost entirely under control of a
few rich men, who don't need to sell unless they feel like it, and
never do feel like it until they get the price they want.” [He
continues,] “These few greedy people have converted one of
England's greatest natural advantages into a national disaster. For
it's the high price of food that makes employers turn off so many of
their servants – which inevitably means turning them into beggars
to Jean-Jacques Rousseau,] “The first person who, having enclosed a
plot of land, took it into his head to say this is mine
and found people simple enough to believe him, was the true founder
of civil society. What crimes, wars, murders, what miseries and
horrors would the human race have been spared, had someone pulled up
the stakes or filled in the ditch and cried out to his fellow men:
'Do not listen to this impostor. You are lost if you forget that the
fruits of the earth belong to all and the earth to no one!”
More and Rousseau agree that inequality arises when a person with a
claim to land forbids other people from living on it or working the
land for food. More says that for an employer to kick his servants
off of his land causes them to become beggars and thieves. Rousseau
believes that all people have the right to the fruits of the earth
and that the land belongs to no one.
Written in April 2008 for a course on political theory,
Edited in July 2014
Aristotle believes that
the middle-class is economically and morally moderate. The
middle-class has property, and thus it is interested in politics, but
those who have either excessive wealth or excessive poverty may
become arrogant or malicious, and no longer able to obey reason or
make wise decisions.
polarization and extremism. He idealizes a constitutional government.
He says, “Where the middle class outweighs in numbers both the
other classes, or even one of them, it is possible for a constitution
to be permanent.”
He sees democracy as
problematic, describing it as “rule by the many in their own
interest.” He says that there should be direct participation of
citizens in the affairs of the state rather than participation
through representation. He believes that it is good for people to
take turns governing, and that citizens should be willing to serve on
of the middle-class is different from the American middle class in
that American citizens are not often willing to serve on juries.
Also, direct citizen participation in American government is much
less common than people exercising political power through
Written in April 2008 for a course on political theory,
Edited in July 2014
Hannah Arendt says that
“to force people by violence, to command rather than to persuade,
were prepolitical ways to deal with people[,] characteristic of life
outside the polis...” [.
She continues,] “To be political... meant that everything was
decided through words and persuasion and not through force and
violence.” She says that as political philosophy grew, the emphasis
shifted from action to speech - previously regarded as equal - as a
means of persuasion.
Machiavelli says that “a
prince, so long as he keeps his subjects united and loyal, ought not
to mind the reproach of cruelty; because with a few examples he will
be more merciful than those who, through too much mercy, allow
disorders to arise...” [. He continues,] “if one considers
everything carefully, doing some some things that seem virtuous may
result in one's ruin, whereas doing other things that seem vicious
may strengthen one's position and cause one to flourish.”
Machiavelli does not
agree with Arendt at all. He says that good arms and good laws
constitute the dual foundations of a well-ordered political system,
and that the use of violence can advance political power, while
Arendt says that the use of violence is prepolitical.
Written in April 2008 for a course on political theory,
edited in July 2014
Both Aristotle and Hobbes
believe that in order to understand the state, one must study its
origins. Aristotle believes that the origin of the polis existed in
relationships, whereas Hobbes sees the individual as the building
block of political society.
Aristotle says that “all
associations come into being for the sake of some good”, and that
“the most sovereign and inclusive association is the political
association [polis].” He says that “...there must necessarily be
a pairing of those who cannot exist without one another... [and] a
union of the naturally ruling element with the element which is
naturally ruled, for the preservation of both.”
Aristotle says that
“just as some are by nature free, so others are by nature slaves,
and for these latter the condition of slavery is both beneficial and
just.” He says that people whom have forethought by the virtue of
intellect are naturally rulers, and that people whom have the bodily
power to do physical work are naturally ruled.
Hobbes believes that a
person's desire for self-preservation may become egoism, and this
causes individuals to seek protection from other individuals by
placing constraints upon their egoistic natures. He believes that
unbridled egoism prevents people from socializing with each other
because of their fear and lack of trust.
explains man and woman's biological necessity to each other, he is
not able to support the claim that a slave cannot exist without a
master in the same way man and woman depend on one another. He
assumes that slaves are unable to exercise forethought. Also, it
would seem that all people have the power to do physical work, and
Aristotle fails to explain whether a person whom has both power and
intellect deserves to rule or be ruled.
Hobbes' argument is more
plausible because he doesn't make birth-based generalizations about
rulers and the ruled; instead, he imagines the moment the rule of law
came into existence, and explains the necessity of the rule of law as
protection of the safety of individuals, and not strictly to keep
necessary relationships intact. The relationship of man and woman is
a social relationship that does not need political associations to
survive. After all, that relationship existed sustainably even before
the advent of the rule of law.